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Rococo


本期目錄
美加TOEFL閱讀
Rococo
洛可可藝術
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今日主題-閱讀測驗
Rococo

The terms which designate styles are very often pejorative words: Gothic, Mannerism, or Baroque have been or still are used with a polemical value. They allow their user to qualify—or rather, to disqualify—the supposedly poor taste of a bygone era. Historians thus find themselves inheriting vague notions of a flawed utility; polemic terms rarely carry with themselves nuances, instead they tend to amalgamate under one negative heading all sorts of manifestations and phenomena so as to reject the whole lot integrally.

“Rococo” still has a resonance that is tinged with negativity. In the Nineteenth Century, the word was felt to be familiar and a tad on the vulgar side. Indeed, in the French writer Stendhal’s Promenades in Rome, the author prefaces his use of the word Rococo with the following: “Will one allow me the use of a low word?” Even today, “Rococo” still has the ring of “archaic” and “ridiculous”. Beyond this image, however, lies the reality of an often beautiful, sometimes even sublime European artistic style that flourished during the period 1740-1770.

What are the characteristics of Rococo art? The first impression must be one of luxurious, perhaps even excessive decorative stylization. Typical examples of Rococo architecture such as the Hotel Soubise in Paris, the Amalienburg Hotel in Dresden, or the Vierzehnheiligen church in Vienna, principally bear the distinguishing features of Rococo in areas of passage: window openings, archways, transitions between walls and vaults. The twisting, interlaced and superimposed layers of intricate decorative moldings seem to have the object of “erasing” the articulations or functional features of architecture. The decorative elements used in Rococo art are themselves utterly fanciful; vaguely vegetative, they are fantastically stretched, curled, and flamboyantly painted or gilded. Rococo is never understated; it could even be said that its essence is extravagance.

Such extravagance was no coincidence. Rococo emerged at a time of unprecedented prosperity and growth in Western Europe, a period of economic and demographic expansion that saw relatively few wars. Rococo was the last artistic achievement of European aristocratic society, sociable, refined, and polite but poised at the brink of its own extinction. It would be an error, however, to assume that Rococo was purely and simply the profane, light, frivolous art of the worldly moneyed classes. Some of the most significant Rococo art, particularly in Central Europe, is to be found in religious works of art such as churches.


1.Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?

(A) The Extravagance of Rococo
(B) Rococo: the Frivolous Art
(C) Bias in Art
(D) An Artistic Misconception


2.What does the passage mainly discuss?

(A) the origins of Rococo
(B) the reasons for Rococo’s extinction
(C) fallacies about Rococo
(D) literary influences in Rococo


3.The word “amalgamate” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to

(A) designate
(B) fuse
(C) devastate
(D) denigrate


4.What is NOT true about Central European Rococo?

(A) it was limited to profane works of art
(B) it featured stylized lines and much decoration
(C) it eventually became extinct
(D) it never achieved great fame


5.Why does the author quote the French writer Stendhal?

(A) to illustrate that Rococo art was misunderstood
(B) to underline the negative image of the word Rococo
(C) to demonstrate a characteristic of Rococo art
(D) to refute a contemporary viewpoint
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中文解析
洛可可藝術

表明風格的這些用語:哥德式、形式主義、巴洛克式,經常都是貶抑詞,它們曾經或仍然以具爭議性的價值,為人所使用著。

它們這些字的使用者「界定」,或更確切地說,『貶抑』過去某一時代被認定為低劣的品味。歷史學家也因此發覺到自己繼承了一種錯的實用觀念;爭議性的用詞很少分辨細微的差異,反而在一個負面的大標題之下,它們傾自於混合所有顯現的事物興異象,便排斥整體理念。

洛克克仍然帶有一種負面的意含。十九世紀,這個字讓人覺得隨便有點粗俗。的確法國作家斯湯達爾下的「羅馬散步」,這位作家以下面的語句來為他著作做序「有人允許我使用-低俗的字嗎」即使今日,洛克克作然帶有老舊、可笑的味。然而,超越這種形象之外,它經常呈現出一種美麗、有時甚至是壯麗的歐洲藝術風格的真實,並興盛於一七四O至一七七O年之間。

什麼是洛克克藝術的特色?它給人的印象首先必須是一種豪華也許甚至是一種過度裝飾的形式。典型洛克克建築的例子,如巴黎的蘇比斯府第德列斯登的阿馬林堡飯店,或是維也納Vierzehnheiligen的教堂,在通道地區,主要都具有明顯的洛克克特徵::窗戶的開法拱門、牆與拱行圓屋頂之間的過渡建築式樣。交錯、扭絞與層層相疊的複雜裝飾鑄造型狀,似乎具有手「抹除」建築學簡潔與具功能性特色的目的。

運用於洛克克藝術的裝飾元素,本身相當華麗,隱約像是生長中的植物,它們超乎想像地伸展、捲曲、而且加以浮誇的彩繪或裝飾。洛克克絕不是低調的風格。它甚至可說,它的精華就是誇張。

這種漫無節制的風格,一點也不是巧合之事,洛可可出現在西歐前所未有的經濟繁榮與成長時代,一段極少看見戰事、經濟與人口大幅擴張的時期。洛可可乃是社交性、精緻的、有禮的歐洲貴族社會的最後藝術成就,但瀕臨貴族社會崩潰的邊緣。

然而如果認為洛可可純粹是市儈有錢階級的鄙俗淺薄輕浮的藝術,那就錯了。有些最重要的洛可可藝術,特別是在歐洲中部,以宗教藝術的作品而為人發現,如教堂的建築。

1. 下列何者是本篇文章最適合的標題?(D)

A. 洛可可藝術的過度裝飾
B. 洛可可:輕浮的藝術
C. 藝術裡的偏見
D. 一個藝術上的不正確觀念

2. 這篇文章主要討論的是什麼?(C)

A. 洛可可藝術的起源
B. 洛可可藝術消失的原因
C. 關於洛可可藝術的謬論
D. 文藝在洛可可藝術上的影響

3. 意思最接近文章第一段中的”混合”(amalgamate)這個字的選項是?(B)

A. 指出(designate)
B. 融合(fuse)
C. 毀壞(devastate)
D. 汙辱(denigrate)

4. 下列何者關於歐洲中部洛可可藝術的描述是不正確的?(A)

A. 它只限於用在世俗的藝術創作上
B. 它擁有刻意造型的線條與繁複的裝飾
C. 它終究消失了
D. 它從未達到聲名遠播的境界

5. 文章作者為什麼要舉出法國作家斯湯達爾?(B)

A. 為了說明洛可可藝術是被誤解的
B. 為了描述洛可可這個字給人的負面印象
C. 為了示範洛可可藝術的特徵
D. 為了反駁當時的看法
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